Re: scope of function parameters (take two)

On Mon, May 30, 2011 at 5:28 PM, Henry Olders <henry.olders@xxxxxxxxx> wrote:

On 2011-05-29, at 4:30 , Henry Olders wrote:

I just spent a considerable amount of time and effort debugging a program. The made-up code snippet below illustrates the problem I encountered:

def main():
      a = ['a list','with','three elements']
      print a
      print fnc1(a)
      print a

def fnc1(b):
      return fnc2(b)

def fnc2(c):
      c[1] = 'having'
      return c

This is the output:
['a list', 'with', 'three elements']
['a list', 'having', 'three elements']
['a list', 'having', 'three elements']

I had expected the third print statement to give the same output as the first, but variable a had been changed by changing variable c in fnc2.

It seems that in Python, a variable inside a function is global unless it's assigned. This rule has apparently been adopted in order to reduce clutter by not having to have global declarations all over the place.

I would have thought that a function parameter would automatically be considered local to the function. It doesn't make sense to me to pass a global to a function as a parameter.

One workaround is to call a function with a copy of the list, eg in fnc1 I would have the statement "return fnc2(b[:]". But this seems ugly.

Are there others who feel as I do that a function parameter should always be local to the function? Or am I missing something here?

My thanks to all the people who responded - I've learned a lot. Sadly, I feel that the main issue that I was trying to address, has not been dealt with. Perhaps I didn't explain myself properly; if so, my apologies.

I am trying to write python programs in a more-or-less functional programming mode, ie functions without side effects (except for print statements, which are very helpful for debugging). This is easiest when all variables declared in functions are local in scope (it would also be nice if variables assigned within certain constructs such as for loops and list comprehensions were local to that construct, but I can live without  it).

It appears, from my reading of the python documentation, that a deliberate decision was made to have variables that are referenced but not assigned in a function, have a global scope. I quote from the python FAQs: "In Python, variables that are only referenced inside a function are implicitly global. If a variable is assigned a new value anywhere within the function’s body, it’s assumed to be a local. If a variable is ever assigned a new value inside the function, the variable is implicitly local, and you need to explicitly declare it as ‘global’.
Though a bit surprising at first, a moment’s consideration explains this. On one hand, requiring global for assigned variables provides a bar against unintended side-effects. On the other hand, if global was required for all global references, you’d be using global all the time. You’d have to declare as global every reference to a built-in function or to a component of an imported module. This clutter would defeat the usefulness of the global declaration for identifying side-effects." (

This suggests that the decision to make unassigned (ie "free" variables) have a global scope, was made somewhat arbitrarily to  prevent clutter. But I don't believe that the feared clutter would materialize. My understanding is that when a variable is referenced, python first looks for it in the function's namespace, then the module's, and finally the built-ins. So why would it be necessary to declare references to built-ins as globals?

What I would like is that the variables which are included in the function definition's parameter list, would be always treated as local to that function (and of course, accessible to nested functions) but NOT global unless explicitly defined as global. This would prevent the sort of problems that I encountered as described in my original post. I may be wrong here, but it seems that the interpreter/compiler should be able to deal with this, whether the parameter passing is by value, by reference, by object reference, or something else. If variables are not assigned (or bound) at compile time, but are included in the parameter list, then the binding can be made at runtime.
And I am NOT talking about variables that are only referenced in the body of a function definition; I am talking about parameters (or arguments) in the function's parameter list. As I stated before, there is no need to include a global variable in a parameter list, and if you want to have an effect outside of the function, that's what the return statement is for.

I don't believe I'm the only person who thinks this way. Here is a quote from wikipedia: "It is considered good programming practice to make the scope of variables as narrow as feasible so that different parts of a program do not accidentally interact with each other by modifying each other's variables. Doing so also prevents action at a distance. Common techniques for doing so are to have different sections of a program use different namespaces, or to make individual variables "private" through either dynamic variable scoping or lexical variable scoping." (

It also seems that other languages suitable for functional programming take the approach I think python should use. Here is another quote from the wikipedia entry for Common Lisp: "the use of lexical scope isolates program modules from unwanted interactions. Due to their restricted visibility, lexical variables are private. If one module A binds a lexical variable X, and calls another module B, references to X in B will not accidentally resolve to the X bound in A. B simply has no access to X. For situations in which disciplined interactions through a variable are desirable, Common Lisp provides special variables. Special variables allow for a module A to set up a binding for a variable X which is visible to another module B, called from A. Being able to do this is an advantage, and being able to prevent it from happening is also an advantage; consequently, Common Lisp supports both lexical and dynamic scope. (

If making python behave this way is impossible, then I will just have to live with it. But if it's a question of "we've always done it this way", or, " why change? I'm not bothered by it", then I will repeat my original question: Are there others who feel as I do that a function parameter should always be local to the function?

And again, thank you all for taking the time to respond.


Python doesn't have true globals. When we say "global" what we mean is
"module or built-in". Also, consider this code

from math import sin
def redundant_sin(x) :
return sin(x)

In Python, everything is an object. That includes functions. By your
definition, that function would either have to be written as
def redundant_sin(sin, x) :
and you would have to pass the function in every time you wanted to
call it or have a "global sin" declaration in your function. And you
would need to do that for every single function that you call in your
function body.